Archives: Literature


Abstract: In today’s highly competitive business environments with shortened product and technology life cycle, it is critical for software industry to continuously innovate. This goal can be achieved by developing a better understanding and control of the activities and determinants of innovation. Innovation measurement initiatives assess innovation capability, output and performance to help develop such an understanding. This study explores various aspects relevant to innovation measurement ranging from definitions, measurement frameworks and metrics that have been proposed in literature and used in practice. A systematic literature review followed by an online questionnaire and interviews with practitioners and academics were employed to identify a comprehensive definition of innovation that can be used in software industry. The metrics for the evaluation of determinants, inputs, outputs and performance were also aggregated and categorised. Based on these findings, a conceptual model of the key measurable elements of innovation was constructed from the findings of the systematic review. The model was further refined after feedback from academia and industry through interviews.


Defines Novelty of innovation as follows: ” New to the firm: The minimum level of novelty of innovation is that it must be new to firm. It is defined as the adoption of an idea, practice or behaviour whether a system, policy, program, device, process, product, technology or administrative practice that is new to the […]
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Abstract: The purpose of this article is to lay the foundations of a theory that can be used to interpret innovation processes in the service sector. The hypothesis underpinning this article is based on Lancaster's definition of the product (in both manufacturing and services) as a set of service characteristics. The article follows the example of those who have sought to apply Lancaster's work to technological phenomena. Various modes of innovation in the service sectors are highlighted and illustrated.


The paper is in three parts. First it defines a product (service or goods) as a set of characteristics, a system, comprising {[C’], [C], [X], [Y]}. Where [C’] are the set of customer competences and [C] the firms competences. With [X] and [Y] being the final and technical characteristics. It then defines a framework for […]
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Myopis (short-sightedness) was identified by Levitt as a leading cause for companies not surviving. This is a focus on short-term and belief of being in a growth industry (of which Levitt posits there is no such thing). As an example the US railroad industry focussed only on running railroads and missed the growth opportunity of air freight). The lesson is that we need to frame our business in the right way and at the right abstract level to set ourselves up to grab those growth opportunities.
Reading time <2 mins
Abstract: In modern Western economic history, the industrial revolution and the evolution of scientific management helped society to achieve other important goals and turned relationship thinking into a secondary issue. A mass-market orientation and the establishment of the middle-man in distribution channels, as well as specialisation and the division of labour, became top priorities. The dominance of the highly management-oriented marketing mix approach to marketing from the 1960s onwards, has not allowed for a relationship perspective either. This article postulates six key aspects of a successfully implemented relationship marketing strategy: three strategic issues (service business orientation, process management perspective, partnership and network formation) and three tactical issues (direct customer contacts, customer databases, customer-oriented service system). Overall, relationship marketing is seen as a philosophy rather than a departmental function. A transition curve is described for getting from the second to the first.


Introduces the Services Marketing Triangle (which we build on to get to a services framework in which we can explore, find and describe (services) innovations).
Reading time <1 min
Lists potential uses of diffusion models. Forecasting Sampling   Timing of successive generations of a product Determination of the impact of capacity decisions on innovation diffusion Estimation of pirated sales Estimation of lost sales and market expansion due to patent infringements Determination of market value of a business due to its projected market penetration Assessment […]
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Abstract: Purpose – To provide an explicit model to address the relationships between the structural characteristics of a network and the diffusion of innovations through it. Further, based on the above relationships, this research tries to provide a way to infer diffusion curve parameters (innovation coefficient and imitation coefficient) from network structure (e.g. centralization). Design/methodology/approach – Based on the network and innovation literatures, we develop a model explicitly relating the structural properties of the network to its innovation and imitation potential, and in turn to the observed diffusion parameters (innovation and imitation coefficients). We first employ current theoretical and empirical results to develop postulates linking six key network properties to innovation and imitation outcomes, and then seek to model their effects in an integrative manner. We argue that the innovation and imitation potentials of a network may be increased by strategically re-designing the underlying network structure. We validated the model by searching the published empirical literature for available published data on network properties and innovation and imitation coefficients. Findings – We validated the model by searching the published empirical literature for available published data on network properties and innovation and imitation coefficients. The results reported from various relevant research papers support our model. Practical implications – This research shows that the innovation and imitation potentials of a network may be increased by strategically re-designing the underlying network structure; hence, provide guidelines for new product managers to enhance the performance of innovative products by re-design the underlying network structure.


Reading time <1 min
Abstract: Threshold models have been postulated as one explanation for the success or failure of collective action and the diffusion of innovations. The present paper creates a social network threshold model of the diffusion of innovations based on the Ryan and Gross (1943) adopter categories: (1) early adopters; (2) early majority; (3) late majority; (4) laggards. This new model uses social networks as a basis for adopter categorization, instead of solely relying on the system-level analysis used previously. The present paper argues that these four adopter categories can be created either with respect to the entire social system, or with respect to an individual’s personal network. This dual typology is used to analyze three diffusion datasets to show how external influence and opinion leadership channel the diffusion of innovations. Network thresholds can be used (1) to vary the definition of behavioral contagion, (2) to predict the pattern of diffusion of innovations, and (3) to identify opinion leaders and followers in order to understand the two-step flow hypothesis better.


Reading time <1 min
An interesting read on the social acceptance of Google Glass (v1).  Includes a deep trawl through what "social acceptance" means, which adds to the story of innovation resistance. Also proposes addition to the Technology Adoption Model 2 (TAM-2).
Reading time <1 min