Paper
Early Thoughts
Gallouj, F., Weinstein, O. (1997)

Research Policy, Elsevier, 1997, 26 (4-5) ,pp.537-556. halshs-01133098
DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(97)00030-9

The paper is in three parts.

First it defines a product (service or goods) as a set of characteristics, a system, comprising {[C’], [C], [X], [Y]}. Where [C’] are the set of customer competences and [C] the firms competences. With [X] and [Y] being the final and technical characteristics.

It then defines a framework for the types of innovation that can occur, relating them back to the set of characteristics idea. Innovation can be:

  • Radical – a new product (service or goods) that has characteristics unconnected with an old product
  • Improvement – one or more characteristics are improved without changing the overall system
  • Incremental – general structure of the system remains intact and new characteristics are added to [X] and/or [Y] (or certain elements are replaced)
  • Ad-hoc innovation – generated at the interface of client/provider and can be jointly created (often they happen and are not recognised as innovations until afterwards).  Closely linked to the cumulative learning process. Reliant on the type of interface – “sparring” (co-production) are more conducive than “jobbing” (subcontracting).
  • Recombinative (achitectural) – exploits new combinations of final and technical characteristics. Can also be he result of merging two products, or splitting a product into two.
  • Formalisation –

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